What distinguishes humans from other animals is language. The ability to understand, speak and accumulate knowledge in written form ensures humans surpass other animals by far. Humans are therefore called "intelligent animals" or homo sapiens. Humans, at least by the social construct of race, are not homogeneous. Some use language better than others. This risks some being left behind in the pursuit of knowledge and the genealogical upgrade of intelligence. As a conundrum, when a people lack more knowledge, they need to believe many phenomena of life. As their knowledge and intelligence grows, they tend to replace faith with knowledge and intelligence. Knowing your father will come, is different from believing your father will come. Knowing how rain is made is different from believing how rain is made. The transmission of knowledge and intelligence intelligence is fast tracked by language. In most developed countries, attainment of work status is necessarily preceded by mastery of their lingual franca. In other words, language is the foundation of knowledge and competence. If a house has weak foundation, cracks develop in it's walls. The weak foundation could be the result of too little cement, weak ground, insufficient gravel in concrete, or even poor workmanship. Any of the above can cause persistent cracking in the walls. In the case of Ghana, it's poor acquisition of the lingua franca. While it's clear that Basic Education should compulsorily include a good handle on English, many miraculously climb up the educational ladder without mastery of the language. This almost ensures they do not understand the course material at the higher levels they go. By the grace of rote learning, crib or playing imposter they manage to muddle through to the highest qualifications. One thing, however, persists. They do poorly in English. Mastery of English, or any other language for that matter, is not a prerequisite for the attainment of knowledge or intelligence. But for school certified knowledge in Ghana, it's almost so. So how come we have so many ..... in Ghana who cannot speak good English ? These post Basic students, go into SHS with little or no competence in the very language they are to be taught in. In the face of this disaster, government looks at the UN index for Sustainable Development and decides to put more and more people into SHS. This is like I tell you to hire a freshly painted car for my wedding, only for you to hire a rickety car, paint it new and show up with it. Statistically speaking, almost every country that beat poverty, had mass SHS enrollment. This, however is no guarantee. Argentina, Greece and Puerto Rico have had mass SHS enrollment and graduation and still rife poverty. No magic wand is needed to find out why. The world's most sustainably developed countries today, include Cuba and Rwanda. These two, take language development at the basic level as "world cup". In Ghana, the pride of the Ashanti (the dominant tribe, by the way) extendable to Akan ethnic, still see every non Akan dialect as of second importance. This has guaranteed that most, even students, see English as a cheap imposition. By the time most grow, English has eluded them. Next from disaster is that, whatever news majority of Ghanaians hear and try to make sense of, is through interpreter journalists who themselves are products of the same school system we are lamenting about. Blurring the line between inefficiency and mischief, the journalists also take bribes to " embellish" the news. If this Ghana is not The Tower of Babel, then that story is no more than a fairy tale. One government says, "OK, let's sieve intake into a gradually expanding SHS". The next says, " Hey, let's get them all there." Neither is even talking about what it is SHS (or Technical for that matter) students when taught or trained in, can directly benefit this developing country. The truth is this country is being run by a few certified ....... for a few certified formal sector..... paid for by the marginalized masses. Yet we claim to have an education department. As real education eludes the masses, they resort to belief. This is why church business booms in Ghana. I hope you see the relationship. This, to be sure, is no spurious correlation. There is a cause and effect. Mark McStill. 21/1/2020